Revista Arkeos: As gravuras rupestres do projeto Encostas da Serra Geral no Sul do Estado de Santa Catarina
Por: Davi Carrer 20 de março de 2013 às 16:39
Juliano Campos, Luciana Ribeiro, Claudio Ricken, Rafael da Rosa, Clovis Savi e Jairo Zocche
O presente estudo tem por objetivo relatar o registro oportunístico de gravuras rupestres em bloco basáltico, localizado no leito do rio Malacara, rio encaixado em uma falha geológica que deu origem ao cânion Malacara, no município de Praia Grande, sul do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Na grande região do registro ocorre o entroncamento de três tradições arqueológicas rupestres, a Geométrica Central, a Meridional e a Litorânea Catarinense. A primeira é caracterizada pela presença de pinturas que representam grafismos, mãos, pés, figuras humanas e de répteis, a segunda pela presença de gravuras geométricas lineares não figurativas e a terceira é caracterizada por polimentos no granito, às vezes com a presença de temas geométricos e às vezes circulares. As gravuras alvo desse estudo parecem compor um misto das três tradições apresentando padrões geométricos não figurativos, mas com polimento de preenchimento, levando a suposição que a técnica utilizada foi a de picoteamento seguido de polimento abrasão. A conservação do balastro, além do inventário minucioso do cânion e das encostas da serra na região sul catarinense para novos registros, é objetivo do projeto que ora se inicia, o qual foi autorizado através da Portaria nº. 25 de 03 de agosto de 2011, pelo Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional – IPHAN, Processo nº. 01510.001172/2011-74. Há a preocupação com a integridade das gravuras, já que a dinâmica hidrológica do cânion é intensa, o que provoca o carreamento de matacões rochosos de diversos tamanhos, levando a ocorrência de choques e fraturas pós-gravura e o soterramento. Além disso, urge a implantação de um programa de educação patrimonial, haja vista que o local é intensamente visitado pelo turismo de aventura.
Psychiatry Research: Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase in an animal model of mania induced by d-amphetamine
21 de dezembro de 2012 às 15:37
Roger Varela, Samira Valvassori, Jessica Lopes-Borges, Daiane Fraga, Wilson Rodrigues Resende, Camila Arent, Alexandra Zugno e João Quevedo
The present study aims to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers, lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA), on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brains of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by d-amphetamine (d-AMPH). In the reversal treatment, Wistar rats were first given d-AMPH or saline (Sal) for 14 days. Between days 8 and 14, the rats were treated with Li, VPA, or Sal. In the prevention treatment, rats were pretreated with Li, VPA, or Sal. AChE activity was measured in the brain structures (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum). Li, alone in reversion and prevention treatments, increased AChE activity in the brains of rats. VPA, alone in prevention treatment, increased AChE activity in all brain regions evaluated; in the reversion, only in the prefrontal. However, d-AMPH decreased activity of AChE in the striatum of rats in both the reversion and prevention treatments. VPA was able to revert and prevent this AChE activity alteration in the rat striatum. Our findings further support the notion that the mechanisms of mood stabilizers also involves changes in the AChE activity, thus reinforcing the need for more studies to better characterize the role of acetylcholine in bipolar disorder.
Behavioural Brain Research: Imipramine reverses alterations in cytokines and BDNF levels induced by maternal deprivation in adult rats
19 de dezembro de 2012 às 14:53
Gislaine Réus, Maria Augusta Santos, Helena Abelaira, Karine Ribeiro, Fabricia Petronilho, Francieli Vuolo, Gabriela D. Colpoc, Bianca Pfaffenseller, Flávio Kapczinski, Felipe Dal-Pizzol e João Quevedo
A growing body of evidence is pointing toward an association between immune molecules, as well brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the depression. The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of the antidepressant imipramine in maternally deprived adult rats. To this aim, maternally deprived and non-deprived (control group) male rats were treated with imipramine (30mg/kg) once a day for 14 days during their adult phase. Their behavior was then assessed using the forced swimming test. In addition to this, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were assessed in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition, BDNF protein levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In deprived rats treated with saline was observed an increase on immobility time, compared with non-deprived rats treated with imipramine (p<0.05). Deprived rats treated with saline presented a decrease on BDNF levels in the amygdala (p<0.05), compared with all other groups. The IL-10 levels were decreased in the serum (p<0.05). TNF-α and IL-1β levels were increased in the serum and CSF of deprived rats treated with saline (p<0.05). Interestingly, imipramine treatment reversed the effects of maternal deprivation on BDNF and cytokines levels (p<0.05). Finally, these findings further support a relationship between immune activation, neurotrophins and the depression, and considering the action of imipramine, it is suggested that classic antidepressants could exert their effects by modulating the immune system.
Experimental Neurology: Folic acid prevents depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by restraint stress in mice
19 de dezembro de 2012 às 09:57
Josiane Budni, Andréa Dias Zomkowski, Daiane Engel, Danúbia Bonfanti Santos, Alessandra Antunes dos Santos, Morgana Moretti, Samira Valvassori, Felipe Ornell, João Quevedo, Marcelo Farina e Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues
Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown the close relationship between stressful events, depression, and cognitive impairment. Folic acid has been reported to present antidepressant-like effects in both experimental and clinical approaches. However, the mechanisms mediating such effects are not understood. In the present study, we evaluated if folic acid administration to mice could protect against restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and cognitive deficit. Considering that oxidative stress has been pointed as a key event involved with depressive disorders, cerebrocortical and hippocampal oxidative stress-related parameters, such as the activities of antioxidant enzymes (mainly those related to the hydroperoxide-detoxifying system) and markers of lipid peroxidation, were also investigated. Restraint stress induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and memory impairment in the object recognition test, without altering locomotor activity of mice. Folic acid (50mg/kg, p.o.) was able to prevent the stress-induced increase on immobility time in the forced swimming test, but did not prevent memory impairment. Moreover, restraint stress increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, and catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus. Folic acid treatment restored the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and reduced lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. Glutathione, a non-enzymatic antioxidant, was not altered by stress and/or folic acid administration. Together, the results of the present work reinforce the notion that folic acid displays a specific antidepressant profile in the restraint stress paradigm that may be at least partly due to its antioxidant role.
Journal of Psychiatr Research - The administration of olanzapine and fluoxetine has synergistic effects on intracellular survival pathways in the rat brain
14 de dezembro de 2012 às 17:47
Gislaine Réus, Helena Abelaira, Fabiano Agostinho, Karine Ribeiro, Marcelo Vitto, Tahis Luciano, Claudio Souza, e João Quevedo
Recently, several studies have emerged suggesting a role of the intracellular survival pathways in the treatment of mood disorders. In addition, the beneficial effects of using a combination of antipsychotics and antidepressants have been shown. With this in mind, we evaluated the effects of the acute administration of fluoxetine (FLX), olanzapine (OLZ) and the combination of fluoxetine/olanzapine on the brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), Protein Kinase B (PKB, Akt), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) in the rat brain. Adult Wistar rats received an acute injection of OLZ (3 or 6 mg/kg) and/or FLX (12.5 or 25 mg/kg), and were evaluated for Akt, BDNF, CREB, Bcl-2 and BAD protein levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our results showed that treatment with FLX and OLZ alone or in combination increased the Akt, CREB, BDNF, Bcl-2 and BAD levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. However, the combination of FLX and OLZ at high doses was associated with a greater increase in the levels of Akt in the prefrontal cortex, and did not have an effect on the levels of BAD in any of the brain areas that we evaluated. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that treatment with FLX and OLZ alone or in combination exert neuroprotective effects, and that intracellular survival pathways could be involved in the therapeutic effects of combining antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs in mood disorders.